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examine environmental and genetic influences on fetal development.

DISCUSSION 1

For this Discussion, you will examine environmental and genetic influences on fetal development.

To prepare for this Discussion:

· Select one genetic influence and one environmental influence on fetal development and think about how these influences might impact each other.

Post a brief description of the genetic influence and the environmental influence you selected. Then, explain how the environmental influence might positively or negatively affect the development of a fetus with the genetic influence you selected. Be specific and provide examples. Use your Learning Resources to support your post. Use proper APA format and citations.

Assignment: An Infant Case Study—Sam

Many changes happen from conception to birth. A single-celled zygote multiplies and grows over approximately 9 months into a living, breathing human being composed of trillions of cells. That’s quite an amazing feat! With such rapid growth occurring, it is not surprising that the developing fetus is vulnerable to a number of different environmental influences.

For this Assignment, you will examine an infant case study to determine short-term developmental outcomes.

Refer to the following Case Study about Sam, a male infant:

An infant male, Sam, was born to Jane and Roberto. Jane works in the city as a medical transcriptionist, but requested 12 weeks of family leave effective immediately upon Sam’s birth.

 

Sam was born 6 weeks premature, by Cesarean delivery. His Apgar score at 1 minute was 5; after receiving oxygen, his Apgar score at 5 minutes was 8. Apart from the first few minutes after birth, Sam has not required oxygen or respiratory assistance. Because of his prematurity, Sam stayed in the hospital for 72 hours before he was discharged.

 

Jane drank occasionally throughout the pregnancy, but reported drinking most heavily during the last trimester of her pregnancy, which was about the time Roberto got laid off from his job. There is suspicion, although not confirmed, that Sam has Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Sam is a fussy eater, requiring short and frequent feedings. He has been home for 2 weeks and wakes up hungry every 2 hours. He does not sleep through the night.

 

Roberto and Jane live in a house in a rural area. They do not have a network of friends and family who live nearby who can help, but Jane’s mother has offered to move in with them temporarily. Roberto and Jane’s mother get along very well. Jane is debating whether she should reduce her family leave and go back to work earlier than she had planned.

Many of the details in the above case study have purposely been left ambiguous (e.g., ethnicity, geographic location, etc.) so that you can make some conjectures of your own and relate that to Sam’s short-term and long-term prognosis.

To prepare for this Assignment:

· Review the Learning Resources for this week and consider any environmental factors that might affect the infant’s development.

· Search the Internet and/or the Walden library to find articles related to the case study that might support your findings.

For this Assignment:

Write a 2- to 3-page paper and include the following:

· Explain the environmental factors presented in the Case Study, as well as others that may be present but not specifically identified in the Case Study that might affect Sam’s development.

· With the environmental factors you explained, further explain what you think the best case scenario and the worst case scenario might be for Sam’s short-term developmental outcomes and explain why.

· Be specific, provide examples, and justify your response with citations from the Learning Resources/literature.

Support your Assignment with specific references to all resources used in its preparation. You are asked to provide a reference list for all resources, including those in the Learning Resources for this course. Use proper APA format and citations.

Required Readings

Berk, L. E. (2018). Development through the lifespan (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

· Chapter 2, “Genetic and Environmental Foundations” (pp. 42-72)

· Chapter 3, “Prenatal Development, Birth, and the Newborn Baby” (pp. 74-111)

Charness, M. E., Riley, E. P., & Sowell, E. R. (2016). Drinking during pregnancy and the developing brain: Is any amount safe? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 20(2), 80–82. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2015.09.011

Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.

Entringer, S., Buss, C., & Wadhwa, P. D. (2015). Prenatal stress, development, health and disease risk: A psychobiological perspective—2015 Curt Richter Award Paper. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 62, 366–375. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.08.019

Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.

Tzouma, V., Grepstad, M., Grimaccia, F., & Kanavos, P. (2015). Clinical, ethical, and socioeconomic considerations for prescription drug use during pregnancy in women suffering from chronic diseases. Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science, 49(6), 947–956. doi:10.1177/2168479015589820

Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.

DISCUSSION 2

For this Discussion, you will explore one developmental milestone in infancy and/or toddlerhood as it relates to cognitive, physical, and/or social-emotional development.

To prepare for this Discussion:

· Review the Learning Resources for this week and consider the various developmental milestones in infancy and/or toddlerhood.

· Select only one developmental milestone in infancy and/or toddlerhood as it relates to cognitive, physical, and/or social-emotional development.

Post a brief description of the developmental milestone you selected. Then, explain the impact of missing and meeting the milestone as it relates to cognitive, physical, and social-emotional development in infancy and/or toddlerhood. Use your Learning Resources to support your post. Use proper APA format and citations.

Assignment: Attachment and Child-Rearing Style

A key element of social-emotional development during infancy and toddlerhood is the establishment of bonds of attachment. A child’s temperament can influence the nature of attachment with caregivers. For instance, an infant’s difficult temperament might make it more likely that he or she will develop an insecure attachment to the caregiver. If caregivers receive sufficient social support, thereby establishing a “goodness of fit” between temperament and environment (i.e., parenting), they can overcome some of the challenges of raising a difficult child.

The child’s temperament and the caregiver’s parenting style work in tandem to affect the child’s social-emotional and cognitive development. Caregivers who exhibit open displays of warmth and affection and who respond to their children’s needs in a timely manner (thereby acknowledging that each child has some influence on other family members) are likely to socialize their children so that they feel positively about themselves, learn to trust, and are secure with their caregivers. As you examine other parenting styles, think about how the level of caregiver responsiveness affects infant attachment.

For this Assignment, you will explore different parenting styles and forms of attachment, and you will examine how culture might impact the type of attachment.

To prepare for this Assignment:

· Review this week’s Learning Resources and select two child-rearing styles. Based on these child-rearing styles, consider two different types of attachment.

For this Assignment:

Write a 2- to 3-page paper and include the following:

· Briefly describe the two child-rearing styles you selected.

· Describe the two types of attachment you might expect, based on each child-rearing style you selected and explain why.

· Finally, explain how culture may impact the type of attachment.

· Be specific, provide examples, and justify your response with citations from the Learning Resources/literature.

Support your Assignment with specific references to all resources used in its preparation. You are asked to provide a reference list for all resources, including those in the Learning Resources for this course.

Required Readings

Berk, L. E. (2018). Development through the lifespan (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

· Chapter 4, “Physical Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood” (pp. 114-146)

· Chapter 5, “Cognitive Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood” (pp. 148-180)

· Chapter 6, “Emotional and Social Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood” (pp. 182-210)

Darling, N. (1999). Parenting style and its correlates. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED427896)

Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.

Keller, H. (2012). Attachment and culture. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44(2), 175–194. doi:10.1177/0022022112472253

Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.

Required Media

Films Media Group. (Producer). (2000). Baby’s first year [Video file]. Part of the Series: Beginning the Journey. New York, N.Y.

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